Quaderni del Dipartimento di Lingusitica 6 (1995)
Patrizia Bellucci,Tra lingua e diritto: appunti di sociolinguistica giudiziaria italiana
The paper summerizes a Florentine research on forensic linguistics, connected to the new penal code, which has been in force in Italy since 1988. The main areas of our research are: 1- the investigative phase, with particular attention to wire tapping and recording activity. 2- the holding of trials, with emphasis on Courtroom hearings. 3- Radio and TV Broadcasting of criminal trials and their circulation through other media (Publications, seminars etc..). 4- Linguistic awareness of the democratic legal system.
Enrico Borello, L'italiano come lingua straniera nel '700: G. Baretti e la Easy Phraseology
Baretti's interest in language dates far back the publication of Easy Phraseology, one of the first glottodidactic work which makes use of humorous dialogue.
Dialogue has become, since the XVIII century, one of the more widely used methods to learn a foreign language.
Amalia Catagnoti, The suffix -iš in the Ebla texts
The Ebla cuneiform sources of the III millennium B.C. are investigated in order to gather full evidence of the suffix -iš. It is established that, as in Akkadian, the suffix forms modal and temporal adverbs, and that, when attached to some nominal forms, it also signifies the dative-terminative case "to, for". The range of diffusion of this suffix covers the lexicon of all the Ebla textual typologies, including administrative, literary and lexical sources. The morpheme is also well attested in personal and geographical names. It is possible that, as in Old Akkadian, in Eblaic, -iš cohabits with the related terminative preposition iš, "to, for", and which may be written éš. According to the available evidence, the two archaic morphemes probably belong to the Proto-Semitic.
Gloria Cocchi, Deriving have from primitive be
Through the analysis of the different types of perfect constructions in various languages (Italian vs. English / and Spanish, and in the Central-Southern Italian dialects, which exhibit a peculiar situation) we come to the conclusion that BE is the primitive form of Aux, while HAVE is obtained via incorporation of functional head into BE. Such incorporation takes place when the past participle contains an AGRso and no AGRoo. Therefore, the presence of AGRoo is responsible for the surfacing of BE.
Francesca Fici Giusti, Forme e funzioni del futuro nel russo moderno
In modern Russian there are two main types of future tense: the compound future (auxiliary verb with the infinitive of the imperfective verb) and the simple future (the present of the perfective verb). These two types of future have different formal and functional properties, according to the semantics of the verbal aspect. Partially adopting the symbols proposed by Reichenbach, we show that the main function of the imperfective future is to express events (E), which are not related to the point of speech (S). The main function of the perfective future is to express events, which are related to the point of speech. The third symbol (R, point of reference) is adopted to explain the relationship between the two forms of future, in order to express a sequence of events.
Roberto Fontanot, Sui suffissi nel dialetto triestino
The article deals with word-formation involving suffixes in the dialect of Trieste. A brief historical introduction is followed by the analysis, in alphabetical order, of the single suffixes, divided into two categories, frequent and of common use suffixes, and rare and learned ones.
Every suffix is explained with respect to its various functions and meanings, with the aid of a wide exemplification (mostly local coinages).
We provide also the illustration of the latinizing suffixes (used playfully), and of those of Slavic (Slovenian) and German origin, which testify, on a linguistic level, the multiethnical milieu which has characterized Trieste in the past.
Marcello Garzaniti, L'animatezza in paleoslavo. Presenza ed estensione nei manoscritti paleoslavi dei Vangeli
Analysis of linguistic material found in Old Church slavonic Gopsels's manuscript tradition (X-XI centuries) allows us to rebuild the archaic period of the development of the category of animacy, which in slavic morphology is realized through the so-called «genitive-accusative».
Gabriele Iannàccaro, In limitem: confini linguistici e no
We start from a methodological controversy which arose in the making of the Linguistic Atlas of Itoigawa (Japan, early '60); we show that:
a) traditional dialectology has given attention only to geographical, static linguistic boundaries, without considering any other differentiation or dynamic process;
b) this view is shared by non linguist speakers, who mark very carefully the distances between them and other communities, disregarding internal differentiation(s);
c) both a) and b) have little to do with linguistics, since b) is grounded on group identity, while a) neglects too many important factors of a community's language. The only true boundary is the distinction (in fact realized by the speakers, but not declared) among different linguistic situations, which requires adequate speech responses.
Nedzad Leko, Syntactic behaviour of numerals 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 in Bosnian and Slovene
The five numerals discussed in this article behave in three different ways in Bosnian. The numeral 'one' is fully adjectival agreeing with the head noun in gender and case, as any other adjective. The numeral 'five' behaves as a noun of incomplete declension with only nominative and accusative case. It assigns genitive case to the plural complement of any gender. Finally, numerals 'two', 'three' and 'four' share characteristics of both 'one' and 'five'. They are adjectival only in oblique cases showing agreement in gender and case with the head noun. In the nominative and accusative cases, however, they assume a role of a noun and behave as nominal heads assigning genitive case to the following paucal complement. In contrast with Bosnian, Slovene distinguishes three grammatical numbers: singular, dual and plural, with separate and distinct declensions. In Slovene neither of these five numerals behave exclusively as a nominal numeral. Instead, we find exclusively adjectival numerals 'one', 'two', 'three', 'four', and the numeral 'five' with both nominal and adjectival characteristics.
Alberto Mancini, Nuove iscrizioni retiche
We adjourn the Retic problem in the light of the new findings. We present some newly found inscriptions, partly published by S. Schumacher and partly umpublished; of the latter we give the edition after autoptic exam. Particularly important are VN-8: caristu and VN-9: lavise published by Schumacher. Mainly the second one that testifies at the beginning a sure < l1 > and therefore allows us to exclude the reading pavises of PID 188 and at the same time to acquire a new attestation of a term which appears in other Retic inscriptions.
Among the inscriptions of which we give the edition, TR 1: esiau is an important one, which recalls several forms in -au of Valcamonica.
M. Rita Manzini, The positions of adjuncts: a reply to Kayne
In this article I first review the available evidence concerning the position of adverbials. I conclude that the classical X-bar theoretical approach to adverbials, in terms of right adjunction, accounts adequately for the data. On the contrary, theories seeking to take into account Kayne's (1994) and Chomsky's (1995) constraints against right adjunction meet serious problems. I then review a number of other structures, such as extraposition and relative clauses, which are traditionally analysed in terms of rightward movement and/or right adjunction and which Kayne (1994) reanalyzes in terms of left adjunction and/or leftward movement. I argue that rightward movement is correctly excluded, while a number of recurring problems with Kayne's (1994) analysis can be directly eliminated by the availability of right adjunction.
Giovanna Marotta, Sindrome delle coronali e coda sillabica in italiano
In Italian syllable coda licenses only a skeletal slot, associated with a small set of consonants. The coda condition which filters the segments admitted in this syllable constituent has to be sensitive to the manner as well as to the place of articulation.
In the framework of Underspecification Theory, the [coronal] feature is assumed to be the unmarked place of articulation in the underlying structure. Following this suggestion, the coda condition can be formulated by the simple marking of the segment associated with that position with [+ cont], given the surfacing of a consonant unmarked for Place in UR as [+cor, +ant].
Some reflections on the recent borrowings entered Italian are also presented, showing how they may pass the coda condition by widening the scope of the constraints working in the native lexicon.
Carola G. Merlini, Gli schemi morfo-sintattici dei nomi propri femminili in ebraico biblico
The work analyses the morphosyntactic structure of the Jewish Biblic feminine anthroponyms. In order to classsify in the same way the different syntactic functions of the unities that form the name we have adopted the model suggested by Fronzaroli (1988).
The nominal patterns resulting from our enquiry represent only a limited number. They can be reduced to patterns that allow the immediate individuation of the structure of names. Therefore these nominal patterns both allow a clear and complete synthesis of the typology of Jewish Biblic feminine onomastics and a comparison with Ebla feminine onomastics that has been the object of an enquiry of the same type.
Malgorzata Nowakowska, Restrizioni nell'uso dell'aggettivo di relazione in italiano
The aim of this article is to explain why relational adjective are excluded from the predicative position. The author makes some proposals at different levels of linguistic analysis. First of all, we notice that relational adjective can have a referential interpretation. These adjectives aren't able to have a predicative function, because this function is, by definition, non referential. This is illustrated by relational ethical adjectives, among others, in the predicative position of attributive sentences of the form Abstract Noun Phrase is Relational Adjective. Secondly, in the attributive sentences of this form there is a syntactic constraint when the relation between Noun Phrase-subject and Relational Adjective is the same as the relation between the members of a composite noun. Finally, the author explains a general rule: the information predicated by relational adjective must be explicit, except for inclusive and identificational relation; another relation can't be expressed by attributive sentences containing the copula to be.