Quaderni del Dipartimento di Lingusitica 9 (1998-99)
Enrico Borello, La traduzione brevettuale: aspetti linguistici e glottodidattici
Patent's goal is to protect and invention and to obtain the exclusive rights, not allowing the competitors to reproduce and/or exploit it for a given time. The patents have its rule of linguistic construction, shown in this article. The present article shows also the way to form patents translators.
Francesca Fici, M. Rita Manzini, Leonardo M. Savoia, Clitics in Macedonian
Macedonian presents a rich set of inflectional and modal elements, including argumental clitics, modal particles and the negation. In normal declarative sentences these elements precede the lexical verb, differentiating Macedonian from the other Slavic languages, and expecially Bulgarian; in fact in Macedonian, clitic pronouns can occur at the absolute beginning of the sentence, while in Bulgarian, clitic pronouns appear only in second position. From a theoretical point of view, we draw the following conclusions concerning the clitic string, and in particular pronominal clitics. The order of argumental clitics closely matches the distribution of Romance ones, in particular with respect to the split between P (1/2p) and N (3p) clitics. Our investigation into the case properties of both N and P clitics allows us to propose a conception of case as a morphologization of aspectual features; thus accusative realizes the Extension/Measure specification, while dative specializes for Terminus. The position of modal particles has been identified with C, which is in general associated with modal properties within our theory. The position of argumental clitics, which follow the modal particles, supports this analysis. In virtue of their modal features, furthermore, the imperative and the sum ("I am") auxiliary are also to be found in C, where they again precede argumental clitics.
Rossana Stefanelli, Su alcuni composti esocentrici dell'italiano: il tipo V+V (saliscendi, andirivieni, fuggifuggi)
This paper concerns Italian nominal compounds which are made up of two verbs. According the prevailing opinion, V+V compounds should be described as being unproductive and exocentric compounds whose internal relation between the contistuents cannot be a coordinate one.
The aim of this paper is to test such a claim and to check the features that V+V compounds do in fact exhibit. We may recognise two subsets of coordinate and productive V+V compounds show-ing the same structure but differing from each other as regards the semantic features. Eventually, I will discuss the verb forms which are in composition from the morphological point of view.
Giuseppina Turano, On (a)telicity and case in Albanian
The aim of this paper is to offer an explanation for the difference between telicity and atelicity in Albanian. Specifically, I show that (a)telicity is correlated with (in)definiteness and that (in)definiteness is correlated with the structure of the NP object and with its structural position. The Case seems to be irrelevant. In fact, in Albanian, both the object of a telic and an atelic verb are marked with accusative Case, but while a telic verb has a definite object, an atelic verb has an indefi-nite object. I assume that the difference between telic and atelic objects depends on their different internal structure and on their structural position with respect to the verb. In fact, while telic objects are full DPs moved to the specifier of an Aspectual projection, atelic objects are bare NPs which remain within the VP.
Silvia Calamai, Emilio Agostini scrittore e lessicografo di Sassetta (LI)
The aim of the article is to present a first linguistic analysis of a collection of short stories written at the beginning of this century by Emilio Agostini (1874-1941), Lumiere di Sabbio; work which is too one of the sources of Malagoli's Vocabolario Pisano. Firstly is described the linguistic texture of the first edition (Leghorn, 1902), then follows a discussion on the variations in form and content between the first and the second edition published in Florence in 1912, where vernacular words and expressions are generally replaced with the corresponding Italian synonyms. Finally, is presented the transcription of a small dictionary placed at the end of the first edition which is com-pared with the lexical footnotes of the second edition: the author, Agostini, intends with both the dictionary and the lexical footnotes to explain to the reader some particular words and expressions used in his book.
Maria Carosella, La metafonesi nei dialetti garganici nord-occidentali
This study regards the metaphony in the north-west Gargano Promontory dialects. The mid-high vowels present metaphony in the plural feminine of qualifying adjectives and of demonstrative pronouns/adjectives which belong to the 1st class in all places (the only exception is Poggio Imperiale for the qualifying adjectives) and absence of metaphony in the singular masculine of the 2nd class of the same grammatical categories (but also in some substantives and suffixed forms) in Apricena and Sannicandro. In both cases it could be a matter of an analogical structural change on the Latin type of the 3rd declension -EM/-ES (therefore: no-metaphony in the singular vs metaphony in the plural). In fact, such categories, without intrinsically conveying features of gender and number (as being subject to inflection), would be mainly susceptible to metaplasm. In mid-low vowels - which display more restriction in the distribution of this phenomenon - we find, for the noun's forms, "sabina" metaphony in Poggio Imperiale, while finding metaphony only from -/i/ in the places having monophtongh resulting from metaphonetic diphtongh. In the verbal forms instead, we have, probably, analogical extension of the metaphony of the mid-high vowels.
Mauro Braccini, Lingua sua. Percezione e denominazioni del volgare germanico nel primo medioevo latino: presupposti, paralleli e sviluppi
The author sets out excerpts from various Latin sources ranging from Late Antiquity to the 2nd half of the 9th century which refer to the use of a Germanic language. The appreciation of the vernacular arose from the need of preaching and teaching the rudiments of Christianity (oral usage) as well as of making available the translation of parts of the Holy Scriptures for liturgical purposes (written usage) and, later on, a paraphrase of the Scriptures to be read before people who did not understand Latin. Religious subjects typically made any vernacular worth of being labelled (lingua anglica, thiotisca etc.). Occasional hints at pagan oral literature did not care to note down the name of the pertinent tongue. Old English and Old German also played an important part in the teaching methods of Beda and St. Boniface, being em-ployed to test the real understanding of Latin liturgical prayers by the clergy. Actually preaching and teaching mark the boundaries of the usage of the vernacular. The vernacular was never allowed within the precincts of the Holy Mass in Western Roman Christianity, where the tenaciously cultivated idea of the "three sacred languages" (Hebrew, Greek, Latin) practically turned out to establish a monopoly of Latin.
Giovanna Princi Braccini, Germanismi editi e inediti nel Codice Diplomatico Longobardo: anticipi da uno spoglio integrale e commentato di fonti latine in vista di un Tesoro longobardo
The Germanic words of the Codice diplomatico longobardo (the five volume collection of Italian documents before 800 edited by L. Schiapparelli et alii between 1929 and 1986) are for the first time systematically identified, classified and considered. Out of about a hundred words seven-teen represent new acquisitions for the Lombard vocabulary (aia, anca, farsiola, fasso, franciscata, fio-gahagium, fio-waldus, freda, gunfalonus, inquircio, marcarius, mazoscanus, per-gahagium, salseclano, salsedano, saudus, sellus). A linguistic and philological commentary is dedicated to these new items in particular. The alphabetical indexes of the Germanic words of the C.D.L. and of all their forms are added together with the indexes of the Germanic words of each volume.
Danilo Gheno, Sámuel Gyarmathi, "padre della comparazione linguistica"
The Hungarian physician and linguist S. Gyarmathi (1751-1830) is the most important precursor of the big comparatists of the 19th. century. In 1799, 200 years ago, he published in Göttingen an essay named Affinitas linguae Hungaricae cum linguis Fennicae originis grammatice demonstrata, in which Hungarian is compared to almost every Finno-Ugric language and with Yurak (Samoyed). Extremely accurate is the fasciculus primus on the affinities between Hungarian and Finnish-Lappish, but also the other two fasciculi and the two appendixes deal thoroughly with characteristic aspects of "minor" Uralic languages. In several cases, when determining a linguistic relationship, Gyarmathi is still attracted by the aspect of formal resemblance of words, although reaffirming the pre-eminence of grammatical parallels, a side which he keeps coming back to.
Yrjö Lauranto, Lirica finnica contemporanea. Colloquio con la poetessa Riina Katajavuori (Helsinki, 11.9.1996)
After a short "Prefaction" meant to introduce the poetic environment which Katajavuori works in, comes the conversation between the poetess herself and Yrjö Lauranto, former lecturer of Finnish Language at the University of Florence. Katajavuori deals with all the topics that can concern a young intellectual of the nineties, regardless he is Finnish or not: social, cultural, moral and religious problems. The scenario outlined by the conversation is of a life dominated by restlessness and the quest for new solutions. In the "Appendix" the poems quoted during the conversation are presented both in original language and translation.
Marco Bonechi, A Tool at Ebla, Mari and Ugarit
The contextual analysis of the Ebla tablet ARET VII 141 suggests that the writing NI-TI refers to a Semitic term for "blade", ni'tum. It may be compared with Akkadian and Ugaritic nouns and verbs meaning "blade of the axe" > "axe" and "to rive wood".