Quaderni del Dipartimento di Lingusitica 10 (2000)
Giovanna Princi Braccini, Germanismi editi e inediti nel Cartulario di S. Benedetto di Conversano (901-1265)
223 documents are collated in the 1975 edition of Chartularium Cupersanense by Giuseppe Coniglio. They concern the monastery of San Benedetto in Conversano, to the south of Bari, and the territory around it. The Germanic words of these documents are systematically identified, classified and considered. They confirm the deep penetration and the long persistency of Lombard cultural tradition in this part of Southern Italy in spite of Byzantine reconquests since the end of the ninth century.
Gloria Cocchi, Locative Constructions in Bantu
This work analyses locative constructions in Tshiluba, a symmetrical Bantu language where locative complements can surface in the form of a pre-root affix, which forms a cluster with the eventual object affixes. Using a framework based on Clitic shells, in line with Manzini and Savoia's (1997, 1998a-b, 1999a-b) proposal, I will compare Tshiluba affix clusters with Italian clitic clusters involving locatives, in the attempt to individuate the parameter responsible of the different orders observed in the two languages.
Caterina Donati, A Note on Negation in Comparison
This article discusses a set of surprising properties of negation in Italian and French comparatives. Through a number of arguments based on less-comparatives, on the properties of scope and movement of the subordinate clause, and on the morphology of so-called expletive, or vacuous, ne-gation, it argues against the hypothesis which considers the latter as arising from a deep negation in-volved in the interpretation of comparison. Vacuous negation is rather analysed as the scope marker of a focus operator, whose presence in the comparative is linked to the clear contrastive properties of the construction.
Francesca Fici Giusti, Note sul perfetto in macedone
Macedonian presents three different forms of Perfect: one with the auxiliary "to be" and the active past participle ending with -l which agrees with the subject; one with the auxiliary "to have" and the past participle with a fixed, neutral, ending; a third form of perfect presents a copula and a past participle accorded with the subject. Only the first form of perfect has modal proprieties, i.e. expresses a set of epistemic modalities, associated with past processes or events. These properties correspond to the syntactic structure of the verb, because the position of the copula is also the position of the modal component of the sentence. The properties of the third type of perfect are associated with the peculiarity of the verbal structure, which allows past participles to function as accusative and as ergative verbs. The specific constraints of Macedonian perfect, which have been analysed as aspectual roles, give us the opportunity to establish the interface between the lexical semantics and the syntactic properties of these verbal forms.
Valentina Firenzuoli, Articolazione informativa e morfosintassi in un corpus di italiano parlato
This paper deals with the analysis of a corpus of spontaneous spoken language according to a particular theoretical approach, which is based on the recognition of utterance as the linguistic equivalent of speech act. This kind of analysis leads to new significant results in the identification of morphosyntactic features of spoken languages. In particular we examine data on the number of utterances, the number of noun utterances, the number of simplex or complex utterances and the morphology of the verb. The comparison of our results with a different approach to spoken language (Voghera 1990) outlines a new description of syntactic and informational features of spoken language.
Leonardo M. Savoia, M. Rita Manzini, Variazione linguistica, disturbi del linguaggio e Grammatica Universale
This paper reviews recent developments in several domains of psycholinguistic research, in-cluding Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and agrammatism as well as normal first and second language acquisition comparing them to current generative theories of parametrization. Basing our-selves on the large corpus of data concerning Italian dialects analyzed by Manzini and Savoia in prep. we point out the deep analogies between phenomena such as agreement in the third person singular with plural subjects in SLI (cf. Leonard et al. 1992) and in Nothern Italian dialects; dropping of clitics but not of definite articles in SLI (Jakubowicz et al. 1998) and in Italian dialects, both Northern ones (subject clitics) and Southern ones (object clitics); and more. We take these parallels to provide strong support in favor of Chomsky's Principles and Parameters model of Universal Grammar as underlying both normal crosslinguistic variation, normal acquisition, and language deficits.
Luciana Brandi, La produzione del testo fra oralità e scrittura
This paper investigates the ways in which children product stories, starting from a drawing or a photo as stimulus, and using spoken language. The main attention is devoted to the role of context in the process of constructing a story: as for the ages here considered, children give some organization to the perception of objects, individuals and events, through recognizing a structure as a net of rela-tions between such elements and their context; therefore the story may be non autonomous from the referential context. The data examined in this research show that the process of de-contextualization from the sensorial input, that is the capacity to select and separate elements in that input globally perceived, may be conceived as the base for the ability to product texts (textual worlds) when the de-contextualized elements are ri-contextualized into the linguistic context of the story.
Danilo Gheno, Luigi Salvini e la poesia ungherese
The Slavist Luigi Salvini (1911-1957) has also been keen on Hungarian studies. In 20 years he wrote ten works on Magyar subjects. Very relevant are his analyses of folk poetry, which he recognized correctly the sources of. Salvini was one of the first in Italy to appreciate the Renaissance poet Bálint Balassi, and he took an interest in contemporary poetry as well, paying his tribute for example to the refined lyricist Jeno Dsida.
Nicole Maroger, Fonction interactive de quelques manuels de français langue étrangère en Italie entre 1890 et 1925. Esquisse d'une situation et étude d'un cas
A textbook is not to be considered a neutral text but an instrument that brings a lot of different messages reflecting the reality of the external world. What does the author say through his premises, his purposes, the structuring of the contents? How are these messages received by the teachers? How are they transmitted to the learners and then received by them? The interactive function of the textbook develops in these various ways. These have already been outlined by some researchers whilst we have tried to identify and follow a particular one through a mini corpus of French textbooks used at the Istituto tecnico commerciale "Francesco Carrara" in Lucca between 1896 and 1923.
Philippa Walsh, Interviewer Reactiveness in Language Proficiency Interviews
It is characteristic of conversational interaction for participants to endorse topics with assess-ments or contributions reporting related experiences/opinions. This reactiveness is typically absent in interviewer behaviour, but in some language proficiency interviews it has been found that the pro-portion of non-directional interviewer comments increases with the proficiency of the candidate, giving more fluent candidates the possibility to take some responsibility for the development of the discourse. This article reports a case study of two IELTS speaking tests from which it can be seen how the nature and size of the interviewer's contributions shapes the candidate's performance.
John Hajek, Toward a Language History of East Timor
The recent political history of East Timor has recently gained world-wide attention. Less well-known is its linguistic history. In this paper we survey the language situation in the country since first contact with Europeans in the early 1500s. Three different phases are identified and discussed in some detail: (1) Portuguese era (1500s-1975); (2) Indonesian control (1975-1999) and (3) post-refer-endum (1999-). Whilst the Portuguese had relatively little linguistic impact, Indonesian authorities were determined to put their stamp on their new province as quickly as possible. The tumultuous events surrounding the referendum in 1999 have radically altered the situation once again with unex-pected long-term consequences.