Quaderni del Dipartimento di Lingusitica 11 (2001)
Luciana Brandi, Luciano Giannelli, L'accordo nome-verbo nelle strutture VS e nelle frasi dipendenti in area toscana
Inversion in the order nominal phrase - verb, and verb agreement between the two in these conditions, a scarcely attested syntactic phenomenon of Tuscan varieties, is studied here both investigating corpora and analyzing two different Tuscan dialects. Starting from Brandi's analysis concerning agreement with a generic subject in case of superficial verb-first structures (the so-called subject inversion sentences such as viene i ragazzi "the boys arrive" where viene "he/she comes" doesn't agree with ragazzi "boys"), different structural conditions with intransitive ergative verbs - which offer inversion as usual - and with intransitive inergative verbs and transitive verbs - where inversion is much less frequent - are analyzed, assuming focus and climbing of the nominal to this position as crucial elements for a satisfactory explanation. An hypothesis about the structure of dependent sentences is formulated to explain the cross-reference disagreement phenomena in these constructions, and particularly in relatives, finally investigating simple sentences where a sort of a-syntactic sequence has to be recognized.
Lisa Brunetti, Aspetti melodici e prosodici dell'italiano L2: un'analisi generativa
In this paper new data are presented on Italian second language phonology, collected from adult speakers with different native-languages. Melodic and prosodic processes are described in terms of combination, deletion, substitution of elements (Harris e Lindsey 1995, Harris and Lindsey 2000) and explained through licensing principles (Harris 1994,1997). L2 data are compared with data from L1 acquisition with normal development and with disorders. Interestingly many processes turn out to be the same. Moreover, L2, L1 and SLI systems manifest the same tendency to conform all syllables to the CV model, the basic syllable type, proving that CV reduction is a universal tendency, not a peculiarity of some phological system.
Orin Percus, A More Definite Article
I argue that the indefinite determiner a carries a uniqueness presupposition. I show that this enables us to explain the phenomenon of "quantificational variability" in sentences containing adverbial quantifiers and indefinites. In cases where the context fails to establish the domain for a quantifier, we rely on sentence-internal clues and pragmatic strategies in order to recover a domain of quantification. I argue that "quantificational variability" arises when the context fails to establish a domain for the adverbial quantifier (which quantifies over situations). In this case, the presupposition of the indefinite is the crucial clue that enables us to compute the domain, and quantifying over elements of this domain turns out to be equivalent to quantifying over individuals.
Mirko Grimaldi, Ancora sulla questione del vocalismo siciliano alla luce di processi metafonetici scoperti nel Salento meridionale
New searches on the field in the southern Salento, the acoustic analysis and statistic of the data and their graphic representation, have allowed the author to give a different representation to the tonic vocalismo of the area. Particularly, the newest datum is represented by metaphonetic sound changes that concern the middle vowels, and that they had not been individualized before never. Then, the data have been analyzed in historical perspective and already compared with those known of other Italian areas. By this analysis emerge that the metaphonetic sound changes of the southern Salento, as in the area Lausberg and in Sardinia, they are done very archaic, referable to the vulgar Latin. Probably the metaphonetic area in origin had to be wider, but the following innovations co-ming from the north have reduced the extension of it. In the southern Salento a whole series of historical motives they have allowed that such archaic features actually survived to today.
Stella Medori, Les séquences s + consonne dans le Cap Corse: un cas de renforcement consonantique
The Corsican Cape dialects show a lot of consonantal reinforcing. Most particular among them are undoubtedly the reinforcing of consonants following the s in sequences s+consonant. So, after s voiceless occlusives are kept (ex. SP > [sp]), voiced consonants are devoiced (ex. *SB > [sp]) and fricatives turn into unvoiced consonants (*SF > [sp]; *SV > [sp]). This consonants development reminds the consonantal alternation process acting on the consonantal voicing (sonorisation) principle found in North Corsican dialects (but the Corsican Cape and Nebbiu). The phenomenon has certainly to be related to the syllabic division of the word concerned by these evolutions. The observed consonantal reinforcing on sequences s+consonant in Corsican Cape dialects seems peculiar into the whole Romanic language; although it can be found in Calabria, in Salento too, and partly in Umbria, particuliarly for clusters s+fricative.
Marco Bonechi, On Semitic *rms
Several III and II millennium BCE PNs document the Semitic verbal root *rms. They may be-long to the large group of "political" personal names attested in Mesopotamia and Syria, and they suggest (together with the evidence from the Ebla bilingual lexical lists) that in early times the verb had the meaning "to move (toward), to migrate".
Irina Dvizova, Per un Repertorio grammaticale dei verbi ucraini
This paper is a description of the glossary of Ukrainian verbs, compiled by Aleksienko L. A. (Kiev University), Dvizova I. and Fici F. (Florence University). The latter is a normative compen-dium of about 3,000 Ukrainian verbs published in electronic format in Kiev. The structure of the glossary, which comprises paradigmatic, syntactic and semantic areas, reflects the linguistic concept of the inseparability of syntactic and semantic components. The formal models of verbal government are illustrated by contextual examples and provided with the corresponding translation into Italian. The glossary could be a useful tool for studying the Ukrainian language, or for translation. It is also a rich source of updated lexicographic material for theoretical studies relating to topical linguistic problems such as: verb formation patterns, "aspectual" distinctions, potential use of the verb in com-plex syntactic units.
Gabriella Del Lungo Camiciotti, Interactional Aspects in Marshall's Lectures to Women
In this paper I investigate the interactional aspects of the academic lecture from a historical per-spective. I have examined the six lectures that the economist Alfred Marshall gave, under the aus-pices of the Lectures for Women scheme, at Cambridge University in 1873. The aim of the paper is to consider the main strategies employed by the lecturer to interact with his audience, and specifically the use of question/answer sequences and quotes as metadiscoursal strategies. The results seem to confirm the assumption that in such formal monologic text, the nineteenth-century lecturer adopts an authoritative, if sympathetic stance vis-à-vis his students.
Polly Walsh, Belinda Crawford Camiciottoli, Lecturing to an Unfamiliar Audience: Some Functions of Interaction in Business Lectures given by Visiting Academics
In lectures which take place in the context of regular university courses taught by permanent members of staff, it has been found that it is common practice across disciplines for the content to be interspersed with recurring metadiscursive strands, which serve to involve the student audience in the intellectual processes being described and to facilitate assimilation of the lecture content. In this type of lecture, direct interaction plays a marginal and exclusively phatic role. The present study, part of an ongoing research project, aims to throw light on the role of interaction in lectures given by visiting lecturers to an unfamiliar audience. It would appear, from a preliminary analysis of the data at present available, that in these circumstances interaction has a much more vital function. Six "interpersonal strategies" are identified which lecturers appear to use to get to know their audience and establish a working relationship with them.
Annalisa Bencini, Enrico Borello, Aspetti glottodidattici dell'italiano come L2
When teaching Italian as a second language, teachers have to deal with different needs and expectations, depending on the kind of class: for instance, a group of students having the same language as L1 requires appropriated didactic strategies, while plurilingual classes will probably have a negative reaction of exposed to the same procedures. In a moment when the concept of 'method' itself is being submitted to radical changes, the teacher's freedom in choosing among many strategies and activity can also be seen as an increasing responsibility.
The teacher's role in making the elements of the L2 available to the students is especially rele-vant in the secondary school, where students coming from other countries find extremely difficult to understand and use school texts containing a variety of Italian which differs deeply from the spoken language they usually deal with. As in simplified texts are often not available, and they can excessively limit the input, teachers are expected to help the students using techniques they don't necessarily know deeply enough.
Nicole Maroger, Le Poliglotta Moderno ou un nouvel art d'entendre l'autodidaxie au debut du XXe siecle
This article is the second part of a research on French didactic materials implemented at the Istituto tecnico commerciale "Francesco Carrara" between 1896 and 1923 in Lucca. The first part was dedicated to texbooks and learning strategies used by the teachers. This new corpus, the Poliglotta Moderno, allows me to explore a weekly part-work language course requiring self-training. The method is traditional concerning the exercices and the global approach to the language, but it introduces innovations in communication with its users through mail correspondance. Analyzing this authentic dialogue, I have tried to outline a geographical and social map of self-learning needs in Italy at the beginning of the 20th century, probably bringing new aspects to a polymorphic reality that is often difficult to be revealed due to the lack of testimonies.
Luciana Brandi, Per uno studio dell'autismo
This paper presents the fundamental lines to approach the language impairment occurring in autistic children. Two cases are illustrated, two seven years old children: J. is a child that had an autistic regression after the first 18 months of age, and stopped to develop his language. He presented gibberish till to 6.5 years, and recently he started to produce few disyllabic word; A., on the contrary, developed a form of language fundamentally based on stereotypic phrases and sentences previously heard from his family, from songs or nursery-rhyme. The data are confronted with clinical observations and medical research giving evidence for an underlying neurologic basis for autism; specifically reduced neuronal cell size and increased cell-packing density of hippocampus, amygdala and related areas are considered, as well as the abnormalities in the autistic brain confined to cerebellum and related inferior olive. There seems to be growing evidence suggesting that cerebellum has a role in mental imagery, anticipatory planning and some aspects of language processing, while the limbic system structures have to be implicated in emotion, motivation, memory and learning. These findings in neuroanatomic observations of the brain in autism are related to the data concerning J. and A. languages, in order to define the ways to analyze their data and to suggest possible explana-tions for these types of language impairments.
Daniela Giani, Il lessico e la capacità comunicativa nel secondo anno di vita
This research, corpus-based, concerns a collection of monthly tape recordings of spontaneous spoken of a Italian child from 20 months to 31. The topics broached regard his lexical development and the effectiveness of his verbal production.
Mauro Braccini, Giovanna Princi Braccini, Il volgarizzamento aragonese inedito della Historia romana e della Historia Langobardorum di Paolo Diacono nel cod. 8324 della Bibliothèque de l'Arsenal
The Ms. 6324 of the Bibliothèque de l'Arsenal contains an unedited Aragonese translation of Paul Diacon's Historia Romana and Historia Langobardorum, not a translation of Eutropius' Breviarium, as affirmed by the few who have written of this XIV century ms. (coming from the scriptorium supposedly under the editorial control of Juan Fernández de Heredia [1310/1315-1369]). Some samples of the Aragonese text are given side by side with the Latin text as a prelude to a complete edition. Short notes of comment precede, regarding the manuscript, the way of translating and the main linguistic traits of the translator.