Quaderni del Dipartimento di Linguistica 16 (2006)
A. Bigagli, Inadeguatezza del modello a due vie e del modello evolutivo di Frith per l’analisi di dati linguistici di letto-scrittura. Uno studio in corso su soggetti affetti da dislessia evolutiva.
Dual-route model and Frith’s developmental model of reading showed inadequacy in processing reading data of Italian subjects affected by developmental dyslexia. Analysing Italian developmental dyslexic data we are suggesting a new compositional model of reading. It has to be suitable in describing both the developmental phases and the cognitive activity involved in each specific phase of reading development. Moreover, differences in its composition have to show the different reading process between dyslexic and non-dyslexic subjects.
M. Grimaldi, Lo studio interdisciplinare del linguaggio e la sfida delle neuroscienze
Linguists characterize linguistic knowledge; psycholinguists model algorithms that implement this knowledge in speaking and understanding, and neuroscientists are interested in the neural mechanisms that realize these algorithms. Since these disciplines all together belong to the articulated research field known as “Cognitive science”, one can imagine a research program in which these perspectives cohere – in a sort of neurobiological project – attempting to understand the knowledge of language, its acquisition processing mechanisms, and neural computation. Unfortunately, the different epistemological approaches to the study of the mind-brain have produced distinct ontological entities in the research apparatus. In this article I focus on the fundamental problems and challenges that must be addressed if progress is to be made in this area of inquiry. I conclude trying to set the outline of a common research program that, overcoming present problems, may lead neuroscientists and linguists to formulate a neural theory of language.
R. Stefanelli, Tra morfologia e semantica: αεσι΄φρων, χαλι΄φρων, μeλi΄φρων
This paper assumes the new etymology I previously proposed for Φρη̉ν as its starting point. Three °Φρoν-compounds are examined both on morphosyntactic and semantic level with the aim to define the original epic form by selecting it between άαδίΦρων and άεδίΦρων, as well as to clarify the use of χαλίΦρων and the semantic features of its first stem. With respect to μελίΦρων, a deeper analysis focusing on όδΦρίνω and greek verbs of smell perception is executed in order to specify its original content.
G. Vitolo, L’uso del dimostrativo espletivo in contesto di frasi principali e dipendenti nella parlata salernitana
The dialectal research into the expletive demonstrative pronouns in the dialect of Salerno points out the use of these pronouns like extra-phrasal elements with explicative semantic function. They are used only during the conversations, but not in the monologues. unlike the expletive pronouns in the non-pro-drop languages like English, French, Norwegian or Swedish, in which these pronouns are expressed in both situations.
In the above-mentioned dialectal variety the expletive demonstrative pronouns show an alternation of the genders, concerning their function in the explicative phrases. The neutral form kelle alternates with the masculine form kille and the feminine form kella these pronouns are translatable by the expression il fatto è che... whose dialectal form u fatte e ke... has been often found instead of the demonstrative pronouns in the free conversation.
In the dialect of Salerno the expletive demonstrative pronouns can be used in the initial position of the main clauses, but they can occur also in the causal, temporal and completive clauses, in which these pronouns occupy the subject (or topic) position between the complementizer and the verb. In the above-mentioned subordinative clauses, like in the main clauses, the expletive demonstrative pronouns are used with explicative semantic function and their use is optional and limited to the conversation.
M. Bonechi, Nomi di professione semitici nelle liste lessicali di Ebla
The Semitic translations of Sumerian names of profession found in the Ebla bilingual lexical lists belong to the following patterns: participe 0/1 1…2i3-, participe t/1 mu1ta2i3-, participe 0/2 mu1a22i3-, substantivate adjective 1u2…3-, substantive 1a22…3- and nomen agentis tn/1 ta1tan2i3-.
M. Di Giulio, yape: an Entry for a Database of the Semantics of Ancient Hebrew
This paper deals with the semantic data concerning the adjective yape “beautiful” in Ancient Hebrew. It is structured as an entry in a dictionary according to a framework which has been proposed for a database of the semantics of Ancient Hebrew. The analysis takes into consideration the morphology of the lexeme, its root and etymology, formal characteristics, syntagmatics, versions, lexical field(s), exegesis. The most relevant scientific literature on the issue has been collected and examined.
M. Franci, Considerazioni sulla storia della comparazione lessicale egitto-semitica e afroasiatica
Pursuing his research on the Egypto-Semitic comparison the Author in this present note takes into consideration the lines of development of Egypto-Semitic and Afroasiatic studies from the pio¬neeristic period in the eighteenth until the last years, providing an interesting analysis on the different theories apply by the different school on the comparison. Among the more interesting observations ones can mention: the works of the three school: “Old School”, “neuere Komparatistik”, “Diako¬noff’s School”; the real evaluation of glottochronology method; the more interesting field of lexical surveys: anatomy and wild world.
A. Gori, Islam, poesia e colonialismo: due xasaayid di šayð Amadou Bamba
The article is devoted to a first analysis of the traditional Arabic literature of the Senegalese Islamic mystical brotherhood called Murīdiyya. The main components of this literature are here briefly described in general and particular attention is given to the poems written by the founder of the group (šayh Amadou Bamba 1850-1927). The biography of this Muslim learned man is sketched and the connection between the events of his life and his poetical production are studied. Eventually, two of his poems are translated and commented upon to offer a hint to his poetical inspiration.
P. La Spisa, Su alcuni esempi di medio arabo nei testi manoscritti di tre trattati teologici di Sulaymān al-Ġazzī
The purpose of this article is to examine the main linguistic features of the Arabic of Sulaymān al-Ġazzī’s theological treaties. In order to give a new critical edition of these texts, we analyzed their manuscript sources. In the paper we list the numerous Middle Arabic features as Blau described them in his fundamental work (1966-1967). The question whether this language is ascribable to the Author or to the copyists, is still open. Nevertheless, according to the opinion of some scholars, the first step to describe Middle Arabic varieties is to produce a critical text in conformity with the methodology of the modern textual criticism (as it results after a long development in the ancient and medieval-European traditions). In this last fields the respect of the language as it appears in the manuscripts, is one of the basic principles which is called «criticism of forms». Accordingly, the editor will try to reconstruct, as much as possible, the language in which the Author wrote. After this preliminary research, we can maintain that Middle Arabic is not only the linguistic register that Christians Arabs used in their literature of translation, but also, in some cases, in their original works.
E. Focardi, Lexiconlegis. Dizionario ragionato e esplicativo della terminologia giuridica russa e ucraina
The purpose of this article is to examine the main linguistic features of the Arabic of Sulaymān al-Ġazzī’s theological treaties. In order to give a new critical edition of these texts, we analyzed their manuscript sources. In the paper we list the numerous Middle Arabic features as Blau described them in his fundamental work (1966-1967). The question whether this language is ascribable to the Author or to the copyists, is still open. Nevertheless, according to the opinion of some scholars, the first step to describe Middle Arabic varieties is to produce a critical text in conformity with the methodology of the modern textual criticism (as it results after a long development in the ancient and medieval-Euro¬pean traditions). In this last fields the respect of the language as it appears in the manuscripts, is one of the basic principles which is called «criticism of forms». Accordingly, the editor will try to recon¬struct, as much as possible, the language in which the Author wrote. After this preliminary research, we can maintain that Middle Arabic is not only the linguistic register that Christians Arabs used in their literature of translation, but also, in some cases, in their original works.
M. Garzaniti, Viaggiare nel medioevo russo. Appunti sul lessico di viaggio slavo-orientale
Analysis of linguistic material found in Old Russian journey tales (XII-XV centuries) allow us to rebuild the lexicon of journey in the East slavic culture in the Middle age. We concentrated on the lexicon to define the travel, the traveller, the distances and the measures.
A. Jampol'skaja, L’insegnamento della traduzione come parte integrante del corso di lingua russa per studenti stranieri
This paper analyses the importance of translation in language teaching. In the last years the traditional grammatical method is no longer popular, the leading communicative approach is concentrated on immediate language acquisition without comparison with the student’s mother tongue. However, the translation exercise may still be useful at every level. The paper illustrates some types of exercise and analyses the main difficulties of Italian and Russian students.
F. Baldissera, Donne, animali, passioni nel Kathāsaritsāgara
The paper explores some stories of Kathāsaritsāgara in which women come into close contact with wild animals, showing the empathy that characterizes their relationship. This attitude of respect between the human sphere and the animal realm is also mirrored in the frequent comparisons of women to animals, as the latter are generally brought in to show positive qualities in women. This is considerably different from the western bestiaries, where the general overtone is misogynous. In these Indian stories women are not only appreciated for the qualities they share with animals, but are seen as capable to tame them even through their mere innocence or uprightness.
F. Granucci, Alcuni particolari prestiti italiani in francese
It may be observed that, in addition to the ‘learned loanwords’ from Latin, French, in some cases, draws from Italian. This is a privileged source of formal terms in that it is considered the primary heir of the Latin language, practically an ‘added model’ or a ‘novel Latin’ to which it is possible to resort in a nearly painless way.
G. A. Sirianni, Materiali e strumenti per uno studio su fitonimia e fitotassonomia prelinneane (2)
This work, which is the continuation of a first mapping Materials and Tools (Sirianni 2005), is divided into sections that follow those of the previous review closely. Sources: it contains a brief list of the most important doctors, naturalists, alchemists. This is preceded by brief notes on herbaria and officinal herb gardens. Texts: it is a review of old herbals, alchemic works, etc.3. Studies: it includes works on both herbals from a historical-artistic perspective and officinal herb gardens. etc. Sections are subdivided into subsections according to their primary topic: a. herbals, b. botanical gardens, c. religion, magic, medicine. At the end of each section, materials available on the Internet are listed. Works that owing to various reasons were not included in the first review are listed in the appendix.